Conscientious Objection to Military Service


HR/PUB/12/1
UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION
Sales No. E.12.XIV.3
ISBN: 978-92-1-154196-0
e-ISBN: 978-92-1-055405-3
© 2012 United Nations
All worldwide rights reserved




<Contents>

INTRODUCTION

I. CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS AND JURISPRUDENCE
A. The international legal framework
B. Human Rights Committee
C. Regional human rights courts and commissions
D. Commission on Human Rights
E. Selective conscientious objection
F. Limitations on freedom of thought, conscience and religion in the context of conscientious objection
G. Definitions, applicability and related discrimination 
H. Exemption from military service on other grounds and the obligation to recognize conscientious objection
I. Conscientious objection for persons serving in the armed forces
J. Legal basis and process applicable to conscription
K. Minimum age for recruitment, including conscription
L. Conscription: international humanitarian law and the United Nations Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
M. National implementation procedures: access to information and decision-making process
N. Imprisonment and the death penalty for conscientious objectors
O. Prohibition of repeated punishment
P. Post-conflict amnesties
Q. Alternative service

II. CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION AND ALTERNATIVE SERVICE: NATIONAL LAW AND PRACTICE
A. Exemptions from conscription unrelated to conscientious objection
B. Registration for conscription where compulsory service has been abolished or suspended
C. Legal basis in national law
D. Definitions in national law
E. Application for conscientious objector status: time limits, treatment pending a decision, formal requirements and conditions resulting in disqualification
F. Conscientious objection for those serving voluntarily
G. Conscientious objection for those serving in the reserves
H. Selective conscientious objection
I. Information about applying for conscientious objector status
J. Decision-making process
K. Alternative service: non-combatant and civilian service
L. Documentation issued at the conclusion of military or alternative service
M. Arrangements during periods of transition

III. PROTECTION OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS IN INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE LAW
A. United Nations action relating to international protection
B. Determining the international protection needs of conscientious objectors, draft evaders and deserters
C. Persecution
D. Underage recruitment and participation in hostilities
E. Links to the grounds set out in the 1951 Convention
F. State practice
G. Post-conflict situations

Final observations: the challenge to States




List of Articles
번호 제목
6 Japanese 韓国の兵役拒否運動の現況と展望 file
» English 2012, Conscientious Objection to Military Service |UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION file
4 English 2011, The European Court of Human Rights: CASE OF BAYATYAN v. ARMENIA file
3 English 2009. Documentation on Conscientious Objection in South Korea | Published by: War Resisters' International and Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection file
2 English 2009, Korean Government cancelled Alternative Civilian Service | Briefing paper on Conscientious Objection issues in the Republic of Korea file
1 English 2004, Briefing Paper on Conscientious Objection and Human Rights Issues in the Republic of Korea | 60th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights file

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